one of the world's longest-running civil wars, http://www.drugtext.org/library/books/McCoy/book/62.htm, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/BCES-BP-01-ceasefires(en).pdf, http://kachinnews.com/news/2408-time-for-thein-sein-to-come-clean-about-burmese-losses-in-kachin-state.html, "De re militari: muertos en Guerras, Dictaduras y Genocidios", http://remilitari.com/guias/victimario4.htm, "Myanmar: ending the world's longest-running civil war", http://www.post-gazette.com/stories/news/world/myanmar-ending-the-worlds-longest-running-civil-war-635657/, http://www.mmpeacemonitor.org/peace-process/ceasefires, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/03/myanmar-government-rebels-reach-ceasefire-deal-150331194752849.html, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/07/201271772035329568.html, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/44329/maureen-aung-thwin/burmese-days, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7543347.stm, "Fort Wayne refugees from Myanmar worried about policy changes", http://www.indystar.com/story/news/politics/2014/02/02/fort-wayne-refugees-from-myanmar-worried-about-policy-changes/5166423/, http://irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=21101, "Mongla base shelled by Burma Army artillery", http://www.shanland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3402:mongla-base-shelled-by-burma-army-artillery&catid=86:war&Itemid=284, http://www.shanland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3432:land-confiscation-emerges-in-area-under-new-command&catid=86:war&Itemid=284, http://www.shanland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3484:-all-roads-to-shan-rebel-base-closed&catid=86:war&Itemid=284, http://www.shanland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3509:burma-army-occupies-ssa-core-base&catid=86:war&Itemid=284, "SSA 'North' given ultimatum to surrender", http://www.shanland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3511:ssa-north-given-ultimatum-to-surrender&catid=86:war&Itemid=284, "Burmese army releases 91 child soldiers: UNICEF", http://dvb.no/news/burmese-army-releases-91-child-soldiers-unicef-burma-myanmar/42936, "Myanmar's Kachin Rebels Say 22 Dead in Fighting", http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/myanmars-kachin-rebels-22-dead-attack-27023038, http://www.kachinnews.com/news/2418-kia-says-211-army-soldiers-die-in-two-month-fighting-in-hpakant.html, http://dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2012\05\05\story_5-5-2012_pg14_7, http://www.oxfordburmaalliance.org/ethnic-groups.html, http://www.dlapiper.com/files/Publication/ed49fff4-6c18-4bcf-a550-64b4734eb9c3/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/5320f731-eaf2-45ff-9735-6541f3561f5b/BurmaReport.pdf, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/policy/soldier-of-misfortune/story-e6frg8yo-1111116713974, "World: Asia-Pacific Embassy gunmen flee", http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/463569.stm, http://www.mmpeacemonitor.org/conflict/conflict-overview, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/Myanmar_Constitution-2008-en.pdf, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/mobile/world-asia-16523691, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/15/world/asia/obama-aung-san-suu-kyi-myanmar.html?_r=0, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/10/17/us-myanmar-rebels-idUSKCN0I60QY20141017, BBC News: The fighting spirit of Burma's Karen, Jammu and Kashmir insurgency (1989–present), Insurgency in Northeast India (1964–present), Naxalite–Maoist insurgency (1967–present), War in North-West Pakistan (2004–present), Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, Articles with dead external links from March 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Articles containing Burmese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Sporadic ethnic uprisings in certain states, Numerous truces and ceasefires signed by various groups, Regime changes to form the Union Solidarity and Development Party, To allow SSA headquarters in Homain sub-township and Mong Hat sub-township, To negotiate and arrange the resettlement of SSA troops and their families in the locations mentioned in the first point. General Ne Win made peace talk with political parties and ethnic rebel groups in 1972, but he unilaterally reject to form multiparty system again. Fuller, T. (4 April 2013). During the long decades of internal conflict in Colombia, guerrilla fighters belonging to FARC occupied vast regions of forest. Anti-government factions: KNU (since 1949), Mujahideen Communist Party (1948–1988), MNDAA (since 1989) NDAA (since 1989) SSA (since 1988), SSNA (1995–2005) WNA (1975–1988) UWSP (since 1988), PNO (1949–1991) MTA (1985-1996) God's Army (1997–2006) ABSDF (Since 1980s-) SSVF (1967–1980)Supported by: ROC (1948–1980s) Thailand United States, Sao Shwe Thaik (1948-1952) U Nu (1948–1962) Ba U (1952–1957) Win Maung (1957–1962) Ne Win (1962–1981) San Yu (1981–1988) Saw Maung (1988–1992) Than Shwe (1992–2011), Thein Pe Myint (1948–52) Thakin Than Tun (1952–68) Bo Mya (1976-2000) Pado Phan (2000-2008) Naw Zipporah Sein (since 2008)Bo Nat Khann Mway (DKBA, since 2010) Yang Mao-liang Wei Hsueh-kang Khun Sa (1985–1996)Johnny and Luther Htoo (God's Army) Li Mi (1949-1953), 43,000 (1951) 60,000 - 70,000 (1980s) 170,000 - 180,000 (1988) 200,000 (1989) 289,000 (1995) 350,000 - 450,000 (2002), 4,000+ (1951) 6,000-7,000 (2012) 1,500-2,000 (1998) 6,000-7,000 (2012) 30,000 (2012) 8,000 (2012)Karenni Army 800-1,500 (2012) Chin National Front 200-300 (2012)Arakan Army 400-500 (2012) Arakan Liberation Army apx. The appointment by the SSA of village heads in the region, which would work with government official for township administration; Government soldiers in Homain sub-township and Mong Hat sub-township will give help to the SSA, Both sides will discuss and negotiate to arrange for the security of SSA leaders. 14 out of 17 combatants groups made cease fire agreement with new government. Unknown numbers of various other factions. Linter, B. [needs update], Burma's insurgencies have been supported or used by foreign states: the Karen received support from the United Kingdom (UK); along the shared border, Bangladesh (then East Pakistan) assisted the Muslim Rohingyas, with additional Middle Eastern backing; the People's Republic of China assisted the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) (later the United Wa State Army), and the Naga and Kachin Independence Army ; the United States (U.S.) supported the Kuomintang; and Thailand assisted a wide variety of rebel groups by essentially creating buffer states or zones. Martin, M. (2010).  Weapons and ammunition from Thailand have allowed insurgent groups to remain active in the ongoing war with the Burmese army. The agreement was between the Shan and Burmese leader (Gen. Aung San) who convinced the Shan leaders to join him in gaining independence from the British Colony. BBC News. ABSDF (since 1988) , The Karen people is one of Burma's largest ethnic minority populations and it has 7% out of 55 millions of Burmese population. The internal conflict in Myanmar refers to fighting between government soldiers and rebels in Myanmar, which began shortly after the country, formerly known as Burma, separated from the United Kingdom in 1948. Retrieved 10 November 2014. According to UNHCR, there are over 230,000 IDPs remain displaced in south-east of Myanmar. Unfortunately, daily life in Myanmar has been deeply disrupted and affected by the internal armed conflict. During the ceasefire period, increased extraction of natural resources was reported in the ceasefire areas, particularly mining and logging in Kachin, Shan and Kayin States. As a result, on 21 May 1958, the Shan people started to arm and fight back against the Burmese military presence.  According to UNICEF, the living condition of Rohinga refugees camps in Rakhine state are wholly inadequate access to basic services  In the past, the persecution of Burmese Indians and other ethnic groups after the military coup headed by General Ne Win in 1962 led to the expulsion or emigration of 300,000 people. The country became independent in 1948, but has experienced internal conflict ever since.2 Myanmar has experienced different modes of govern- Nowadays, there were around 67,000 internally displaced since the wars have broken out in 2011 Before the end of the Cold War, successful rebel groups in the developing world were typically financed by one of the great powers. Irrawaddy. UWSP (since 1989), ...and others It had many strongholds and became a large rebel group after Burma gained its independence. International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) 1", AP, 4 May 2012, Myanmar state media report battles between government troops, Kachin rebels killed 31. Moreover, it is estimated that 128,000 refugees live in temporary sheltering areas on the Thai-Burma border  The clashes between majority Buddhists and Rohingya Muslim left at least 89 dead and about 90,000 displaced. (n.d.). ‘Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008)*English’. Retrieved 4 January 2010. Saw Mutu Say Poe Nobody could refuse that the fate of Burma depended on its military capability in those period because central government faced the two largest rebel groups. , In April 2015, a draft Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement was finalised between representatives from 16 ethnic armed organizations, the army and the government..  Recently, Al-Qaeda leader Ayman Al-Zawahiri threaten to Burma that the terror network has expanded its jihad to India, Bangladesh and Burma and the security was increased in Rangoon, the capital of Burma  In past half century, successive Myanmar (Burma) military leaders usually raises up nationalism to attempt to control the natural resources from ethnic minorities and such resources competition suffers the most marginalize unrecognized minority group. Democratic Voice of Burma: Level of suffering in Arakan ‘never seen before’: UN. Landler, M. (14 November 2014). , Thailand has been the major contributor of supplies and arms since the crisis began. Arakan Army (since 2009) SSAN (since 1971) There were two negotiations between Kachin rebels and government in 1962 and 1994. One estimate has identified approximately half a million people who have been displaced within eastern Burma due to armed conflict and the forcible relocation of villages. The Internal conflict in Myanmar - Wikipedia involves 135 recognized tribes and etnicities, grouped in 18 Ethnic Armed Organizations, fighting the Tatmadaw since 1948. (7 October 2014). (2010). Simpson, Adam, Identity, Ethnicity and Natural Resources in Myanmar (27 September 2014). Myanmar is a country of diverse peoples and cultures. Democratic Voice of Burma: UNFC opens 2 top positions for KNU. "Ethnic Rifts Strain Myanmar as It Moves Toward Democracy". Later, Emiliano Zapata, Doroteo Arango (Better known as Pancho Villa) and Venustiano Carranza joined him.  Now, United Nations estimated around 120,000 refugees remain in the refugees camps located on the Thai-Burma border. The agreement basically guaranteed the rights of self-determination, equality and financial management. Linter, B. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Journal of Peace Research, 47(1), 1-1. Even with International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) The Australian Political Studies Association Annual Conference, 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014. None of these combatants recognize Rohyngias as an ethnic group of Myanmar. Demilitarization is necessary to resolve the "security dilemma" which gives rise to internal conflict, and to prevent the former combatants from taking up arms again. Different oppositions have different approaches in the political arena of Burma. equally by all sides to every armed conflict, regardless of whether their cause is justified. Life in Cameroon's two English-speaking provinces has been brought to a standstill by three years of conflict, which has cost about 3,000 lives and forced 500,000 from their homes. Why Do Military Regimes Institutionalize? Approximately 62 percent of the refugee population consists of Karen people. Only active and/or large rebel groups are shown.  Myanmar has a long history of tensions between the central government and ethnic minorities, including the Kachin, Karen, Rakhine, Shan, and Wa, which has manifested in armed conflict that has raged for decades. Thailandball (1948–1995) Taiwanball (1950–1961) USAball (1951–1953) The Internal conflict in Myanmar is a series of insurgencies within Myanmar that began shortly after he gained independence from UKball. 100 (2012) 6,000 (1951) 14,000 Unknown numbers of various other factions Total: 60,000-70,000 (1988) 50,000 (1998). Subnational Governance in Myanmar Discussion Paper Series, 4. The resistance movement led by Sao Noi or Saw Yanna fought for the freedom of Shan State.  Insurgencies spread and intensified, especially in the early 1960s following the military coup. (1995).  However, most of the cease fire agreement between the State Peace Deal Commission and armed groups were formal communication process.. Japan (1983), a Japanese court held that the use of atomic weapons against Nagasaki and Hiroshima was contrary to international law, not merely because of the type of weapon used but because bombardment, by any means, of the civilian population of those two cities was contrary to the Hague Conventions of 1907. However, under new constitution, there was only a few role of minority rights and therefore government discussed with armed ethnic group on the sideline of constitution.  According to research of Harvard University’s International Human Rights Clinic (IHRC), three Burmese generals including current home affair minister committed war crimes and crimes against humanity in south-east of Burma under previous military regime. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. However, there were no political results. The government and SSA agreed in principle to the following 11 points on 16 January 2012:, Points will also be discussed in the coming second union-level meeting. (25 September 2014). Keen, David (1998), "The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars," Adelphi Paper 320, International Institute of Strategic Studies, London, Ross, Michael L. (1999) "The Political Economy of the Resource Curse," World Politics 51 (2, January), 297-322. Retrieved 20 November 2012. Bao Youxiang On the other hand, there was no inclusive plan or body that represents all armed groups. Print. Moreover, the Shan, Kachin and Chin states could separate from the mainland of Burma after 10 years if the ethnic state leaders were not happy with the Burmese government. "UN General Assembly Resolution: Time for Concrete Action" (Press release). 1,500 However, the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) has around 4000 troops. ‘Neither war nor peace: The future of the cease-fire agreements in Burma.’ Transnational Institute.  The initial aim of the KNU (Karen National Union) was independence, but since 1976 the people has called for a federal system rather than an independent Karen state. The ethnic populations were the most suffered from a result of long-standing hostilities with the central government. Under military rule over Burma, the United Nations General Assembly has called on Burmese military government to respect human rights for more than dozen times . The uprising ended on 18 September 1988 after a military coup was enacted by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). Alfred W. McCoy, with Cathleen B. The Shan leaders started to fight back against the central Burmese government after the government failed to fulfill the 1947 Panglong Agreement. New Delhi: Ruby Press & Co., 2014. In conflict situations from Georgia to Colombia and Sri Lanka, women play critical roles during and after conflict, as combatants, survivors, heads of household, community leaders and peacebuilders. In November 2005, the military junta began transferring the government away from Yangon to a location near Kyatpyay, just outside Pyinmana, for the purpose of designating a new capital city. Far From Home, Arakan Rebels Fight on Kachin Frontline, Irrawaddy, 28 December 2012. (1998). In 2012 the country had an estimated population of 60 million, including 1351 ethnic groups.  In 2011, the Burmese army initiated a military operation called "Zwe Man Hein" (ဇွဲမန်ဟိန်း) to combat the rebel groups in Shan State. Civil conflict in Burma/Myanmar and community-based health responders. Anti-personnel mines are used by both the formal military forces of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and by armed groups opposing the junta. DKBA-5 (since 2010) Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Burma, Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, 12 February 2007. Under General Ne Win's 26 years of ruling, Burma became isolation and one of the (LDC) Least Development Countries in the world.  Nowadays, stakeholders from government and some ethnic armed groups said they agreed "in principle" while they discussed the issue of natural resource in peace talk. Unfull-fledged parliamentary government had fought civil wars with very large rebel groups and the role of military was the higher and higher in government. On the other hand, it is the most difficult state to make peace between government and rebel group. TNLA (since 1992) 20 November 2009. Ekeh, C., & Smith, M. (2007). Burma center for Ethnic Studies, Jan. 2012, "Briefing Paper No. Since 1962, civil war between the government of Myanmar (also known as Burma) and independent ethnic factions including the Karen National Union (KNU) has caused egregious human rights abuses and unmet public health needs for ethnic minority population [28-30]. Driven out by the Chinese Communist forces, Nationalist KMT armies planned to use the region east of the Salween river as a base from which to regain their homeland. Minorities in Burma. 6,000 Thai government gave up the old policy of encouraging ethnic minority rebels and on the other hand, it favored Burmese government for its energy needs. Dummett, Mark (29 September 2007). 50–51,62–63. 20,000–25,000 Before Burma gained its independence, the Communist group was one of the divisions which fought for independence. Pheung Kya-shin 2014 UNHCR country operations profile - Myanmar. Myanmar's long road to national reconciliation (1st ed., p. 39). While Aung Sun Su Kyi, leader of NLD Party and a winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, was struggling to run for president, different ethnic groups were struggling for a federalist state. Humanitarian organizations have been formed to assist and support the refugees. The Hindu (Chennai, India). This number includes soldiers not actively fighting rebels. Ceasefire agreements have been signed by the Kachin Independence Army and the government, but fighting has always resumed. Wei Hsueh-kang, 600–1,000 Lanjouw, S., Mortimer, G., & Bamforth, V. (2000). China (alleged), Htin Kyaw(President of Myanmar) SSAS (since 1996) In Conflict in Myanmar, some of the chapter writers have failed to acknowledge important techniques for conflict management in the very complicated peace negotiations. Mexican Revolution was a civil war in Mexicoball that saw the Rebels win. Therefore, some ethnic groups didn't cease fire with government and continued armed struggle.  Moreover, the about one-third of ethnic nationalities who live mainly in the resource-rich border areas have been forcibly removed from their homes by the military-backed government as it confiscates land for development projects and resource exploitation. The internal conflict in Myanmar (also known as Burma) is one of the world's longest-running civil wars and began shortly after the country's attainment of independence from the United Kingdom (UK) in 1948, successive central governments of Burma (or Myanmar) have fought a myriad of ethnic and political rebellions. Over 100 ethnic groups live in Burma, and they speak a variety of different languages and dialects. In 2007, hundred thousands of monks defied the government, but were severely crushed down by government.  According to a report by legal firm DLA Piper, whose report was presented to the United Nations Security Council, these tactics against the Karen have been identified as ethnic cleansing.. Minority Right Group International, 1-2. The American Political Science Review, 89(3), 681. , Thailand's support was evident during the 1999 Burmese Embassy Siege. The European Union is promoting the Colombian peace process through inclusive economic development with the European Union Trust Fund. By the end of 2014, National League For Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party, tried to make amendment in constitution because Burmese government refused to amend a constitutional provision that makes Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi ineligible to run for president. Internal Displacement in Burma. Karen ethnic group has struggled for independence since 1949 after the Army Chief of Staff, General Smith Dun, a Karen, was fired and replaced by Ne Win, a Burmese nationalist. 8,000 However, the military junta refused to honor the election results and Aung San Su Kyi was placed under house arrest for the next 15 years. The SSA signed a ceasefire agreement with the Thein Sein's government on 2 Dec 2011. Civil wars under parliamentary rule (1948-1962), Civil wars in Post Cold War (1988–present), Human rights violation and crimes against humanity, The United Nations and International Responses. Myanmar rebels say military operations could end peace talks. Even though, Burmese government and seven non-state armed groups signed with UNICEF in 2012, International Labor Organization guessed it is still on going problem. Retrieved 24 November 2014, from. They have been treated as enemies of the state and second class citizens. , The Shan started to fight back after the Burmese sent thousands of troops into Shan State because of an invasion by Chinese Nationalist the KMT in 1950.  The abundance of natural resources in Kachin state increases the duration of war because If resources are located inside the actual conflict zone and the duration of conflict is doubled.
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